Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario

Levels of Evidence

Ia Evidence obtained from meta-analysis or systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ib Evidence obtained from at least one randomized controlled trial. IIa Evidence obtained from at least one well-designed controlled study without randomization. IIb Evidence obtained from at least one other type of well-designed quasi-experimental study. III Evidence obtained from well-designed non-experimental descriptive studies, such as comparative studies, correlation studies and case studies. IV Evidence obtained from expert committee reports or opinions and/or clinical experiences of respected authorities.

Older Adults
Promoting Continence Using Prompted Voiding
Practice Recommendations