Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario

Individual Recommendations

Self Awareness – To learn to embrace diversity in individuals:
1. Perform self-reflection of one’s own values/beliefs, incorporating feedback from peers

2. Express an awareness of one’s own views of differences among people (e.g. different opinions, different world views, different races, different values, different views of society).

3. State and continually explore, through reflection and feedback, how one’s own biases, personal values, and beliefs, affect others.
4. Identify cultural differences among clients and colleagues in the practice setting.
5. Acknowledge one’s own feelings and behaviours toward working with clients, families and colleagues who have different cultural backgrounds, health behaviours, belief systems, and work practices.
6. Explore one’s strategies for resolving conflicts that arise between self and colleagues and/or clients from diverse groups.
7. Identify and seek guidance, support, knowledge and skills from role models who demonstrate cultural proficiency.
8. Recognize and address inequitable, discriminatory, and/or racist behaviours or institutional practices when they occur
9. Acknowledge the presence or absence of individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds at all levels in the workplace, reflecting the cultural makeup of the clients or community being served.
10. Reflect and act on ways to be inclusive in all aspects of one's practice.
2. Communication – To develop communication skills that promote culturally diverse settings:
1. Are aware of different communication styles and the influence of culture on communication.
2. Are aware of one’s preferred communication style, its strengths and limitations, and how it affects colleagues and recipients of care.
3. Seek feedback from clients and colleagues, and participate in communication validation exercises (e.g. role-playing exercises, case studies).
4. Use a range of communication skills to effectively communicate with clients and colleagues (e.g. empathetic listening, reflecting, non-judgmental open-ended questioning).
5. Seek and participate in learning opportunities that include a focus on communication and diversity.
3. New Learning – To attain cultural competence in individuals:
1. Acquire knowledge of the range of cultural norms, beliefs and values relevant to clients and colleagues as a starting point to foster understanding – and further inquiry.
2. Are aware of the disparities (e.g. health outcomes, access to care, economics, job opportunities) that exist for diverse populations, and understand the factors and processes that contribute to them.
3. Recognize how culture and diversity influence behaviours and interactions.
4. Develop and apply cultural competence knowledge and skills in the areas of communication, care planning, conflict resolution and change management.
5. Access, utilize, and partner with cultural resources.


Healthy Work Environment
Embracing Cultural Diversity in Health care: Developing Cultural Competence
Healthy Work Environment Recommendations