Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario

Structural and Biomechanical Abnormalities

Risk Factor Assessment

Bony and soft tissue deformities

  • Toe deformities (claw or hammer toes)
  • Prominent metatarsal heads with
  • inadequate soft tissue padding
  • Hallux valgus (bunions)
  • Charcot’s joint (foot warm, swollen, red
  • and painless during active phase)
  • Blister
  • Callus/Corn
  • Fungal infection.
  1. Examine feet standing and sitting/lying down with shoes and socks off.
  2. Examine footwear and teach client regarding appropriate footwear.

The key criteria for appropriate footwear include:

  • A wide toe box (1/2" between the tip of the toe and the end of the shoe)
  • Sufficient depth
  • Good arch support
  • Shoe fits without rubbing along any area of the foot.


Chronic Disease
Reducing Foot Complications for People with Diabetes
Point of Care Resources