- The older adult may experience communication challenges associated with:
- Under reporting of pain,
- Speaking a different language, and
- Communication barriers (aphasia, cognitive impairments such as dementia, visual and hearing impairments).
- When planning pharmacological interventions, the impact of age-related changes such as co- morbidities, co-existent diseases and use of multiple medications must be considered, as they put the older adult at high risk for medication-related adverse events.
Assessment and Management of Pain - 3rd Edition
Point of Care Resources