· Many critically ill patients are unable to self-report due to multiple factors such as mechanical ventilation, administration of high doses of sedative agents, and altered levels of consciousness.
· They are exposed to many painful procedures during hospitalization in a critical care unit, in addition to their reason for admission often related to pain.
· A high proportion of critically ill patients experience moderate to severe pain. Therefore, pain management includes the use of opioids, mainly through parenteral route.
· Continuous monitoring of physiologic parameters is necessary to ensure adequate surveillance of patients.
· Multi-modal approaches are strongly recommended but have to be carefully established taking according to the complex patient’s condition and use of other medications.
· Non-pharmacological interventions are also suggested to maximize pain relief.