Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario

Precipitating Risk Factors for Restraint Use

  • Many of the precipitating risk factors for restraint use may have previously been predisposing factors but the change in settings and client situation threatens the client’s ability to cope.

Cognitive Changes:

• Delirium

• Dementia

• Sundowning

• Unable to remember instructions

Decreased Mobility:

• Bedridden

• Lack of assistive devices

Environmental Factors:

• Music

• Noise

• Temperature

• Unfamiliar environment


Medications Influences:

• Alcohol and substance abuse

• Benzodiazepines

• New medications

• Polypharmacy

• Psychoactive agents

• Unanticipated side effects

Multiple Admissions

Surgery/ Procedural Interruptions

Unmet needs:

• Anxiety

• Fear

• Hunger

• Pain

• Thirst

• Toileting

Clinical Management
Promoting Safety: Alternative Approaches to the Use of Restraints
Point of Care Resources