Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario

Levels of Evidence

Ia Evidence obtained from meta-analysis or systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Ib Evidence obtained from at least one randomized controlled trial.

IIa Evidence obtained from at least one well-designed controlled study without randomization.

IIb Evidence obtained from at least one other type of well-designed quasi-experimental study.

III Evidence obtained from well-designed non-experimental descriptive studies, such as comparative studies, correlation studies and case studies.

IV Evidence obtained from expert committee reports or opinions and/or clinical experiences of respected authorities.

Older Adults
Prevention of Constipation in the Older Adult Population
Practice Recommendations